CV, grants/awards, publications

A shortened overview of employment, grants and prizes, and publications:

Currently Principal Investigator of Brain Stimulation in Vision Research, in the section of Brain Stimulation and Cognition headed by Professor Alexander Sack, at Maastricht University in the Netherlands. First supported during my PhD research by an NWO Toptalent grant, subsequently supported during post-doctoral research by a NWO VENI grant.

employment history
2021+: Principal Investigator (PI) of Brain Stimulation in Vision Research, Maastricht University
2016-2020: Assistant Professor Cognitive Neuroscience, Maastricht University
2012-2016: post-doctoral researcher
2008-2012: PhD student
2011-now: founder, managing editor, contributor,

2013: PhD Cognitive Neuroscience (cum laude)
2008: Research Master of Science (cum laude)
2006: Bachelor of Science (cum laude)

grants and prizes (my thanks to/for all!)

  • CSC scholarship (1 PhD candidate funding, 2021)
  • Wetenschappers Gewaardeerd (€10.000) from KNAW for science valorisation (2021)
  • CIN grant (1 PhD candidate matched funding, 2017)
  • NWO Research Talent grant (1 PhD candidate funding, 2017)
  • Maastricht University Dissertation Prize for best doctoral thesis 2013-2014 (2016)
  • research grant VENI (€250.000), NWO, the Netherlands (2013)
  • Young e-learning Talent award (2013) from
  • Gerard Mols award for innovations in education (2012)
  • Subsidy by MYRA (€10.000), BrainMatters (2011)
  • Leading in Learning grant from MU (€15.000), BrainMatters (2011)
  • Finalist NWO Academic Year Prize 2011
  • Winner of the associated Public Prize 2011
  • Human Brain Mapping Abstract Award ($600), (2010)
  • Human Brain Mapping Abstract Award ($750), (2009)
  • research grant Toptalent (€180.000), NWO, the Netherlands, (2008)
  • Best Speaker Award (€200): CNCN conference in Nijmegen, the Netherlands  (2008)
  • SWOL/UM scholarship (€1.300) (2006)


publications (not exhaustive)


first/senior author

de Graaf TA, Thomson A, Janssens SEW, van Bree S, Ten Oever S, Sack AT. (2020). Does alpha phase modulate visual target detection? Three experiments with tACS-phase-based stimulus presentation. Eur J Neurosci. 51(11):2299-2313.

Janssens SEW, Sack AT, Jessen S, de Graaf TA (2020). Can processing of face trustworthiness bypass early visual cortex? A transcranial magnetic stimulation masking study. Neuropsychologia. 137:107304.

Gallotto S, Duecker F, Oever ST, Schuhmann T, de Graaf TA*, Sack AT*. (2020). Relating alpha power modulations to competing visuospatial attention theories. Neuroimage. 207:116429.

de Graaf TA, Sack AT. (2018). When and How to Interpret Null Results in NIBS: A Taxonomy Based on Prior Expectations and Experimental Design. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 12:915. (IF = 3.566).

de Graaf TA, van den Hurk J, Duecker F, Sack AT. (2018). Where are the fMRI correlates of phosphene perception? Frontiers in Neuroscience. 12:883. (IF = 3.566)

Schilberg L, Engelen T, Ten Oever S, Schuhmann T, de Gelder B, de Graaf TA*, Sack AT*. (2018). Phase of beta-frequency tACS over primary motor cortex modulates corticospinal excitability. Cortex. 103:142-152 (IF = 4.907)

de Graaf TA, Baeken C, Sienaert P, Aleman A, Sack AT. (2017). [Brain stimulation: the most direct form of neurostimulation]. Tijdschr Psychiatr. 59(10):588-593.

Gallotto S, Sack AT, Schuhmann T, de Graaf TA. (2017). Oscillatory Correlates of Visual Consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology. 8:1147. (IF = 2.089)

de Graaf TA, Duecker F, Stankevich Y, Ten Oever S, Sack AT. (2017). Seeing in the
dark: Phosphene thresholds with eyes open versus closed in the absence of visual inputs. Brain Stimul. 10(4):828-835 (IF = 6.120)

de Graaf, T.A., van Ee, R., Croonenberg, D., Klink, P.C., Sack, A.T. (2017). Visual suppression at the offset of binocular rivalry. Journal of Vision, 17(1): 2 (IF = 2.266).

ten Oever, S.*, de Graaf, T.A.*, Bonnemayer, C., Ronner, J., Sack, A.T., Riecke, L. (2016). Stimulus presentation at specific neuronal oscillatory phases experimentally controlled with tACS: implementation and applications. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 10:240

de Graaf, T.A., Duecker, F., Fernholz, M.H.P., Sack, A.T. (2015). Spatially specific vs. unspecific disruption of visual orientation perception using chronometric pre-stimulus TMS. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9, 5 (IF = 3.270)

de Graaf, T.A., Koivisto, M., Jacobs, C., Sack, A.T. (2014). The chronometry of visual perception: review of occipital TMS masking studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 45, 295–304 (IF = 8.802)

Jacobs, C.*, de Graaf, T.A.*, Sack, A.T. (2014). Two distinct neural mechanisms in early visual cortex determine subsequent visual processing. Cortex, 59, 1–11 *shared first-author (IF = 5.128)

de Graaf, T.A., Sack, A.T. (2014). Using brain stimulation to disentangle neural correlates of conscious vision. (2014). Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1019 (IF = 2.560)

de Graaf, T.A., Gross, J., Paterson, G., Rusch, T., Sack, A.T., Thut, G. (2013). Alpha-Band Rhythms in Visual Task Performance: Phase-Locking by Rhythmic Sensory Stimulation. PLoS ONE. (IF = 3.730)

de Graaf, T. A., Goebel, R., & Sack, A. T. (2012). Feedforward and quick recurrent processes in early visual cortex revealed by TMS? Neuroimage. (IF = 5.937)

de Graaf, T. A., de Jong, M. C., Goebel, R., van Ee, R., & Sack, A. T. (2011). On the functional relevance of frontal cortex for passive and voluntarily controlled bistable vision. Cereb Cortex, 21(10), 2322-2331. (IF = 6.844)

de Graaf, T. A., Cornelsen, S., Jacobs, C., & Sack, A. T. (2011). TMS effects on subjective and objective measures of vision: stimulation intensity and pre- versus post-stimulus masking. Conscious Cogn, 20(4), 1244-1255. (IF = 2.179)

de Graaf, T. A., Herring, J., & Sack, A. T. (2011). A chronometric exploration of high-resolution ‘sensitive TMS masking’ effects on subjective and objective measures of vision. Exp Brain Res, 209(1), 19-27. (IF = 2.296)

de Graaf, T. A., Hsieh, P. J., & Sack, A. T. (2012). The ‘correlates’ in neural correlates of consciousness. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 36(1), 191-197. (IF = 9.051)

de Graaf, T. A., Jacobs, C., Roebroeck, A., & Sack, A. T. (2009). FMRI effective connectivity and TMS chronometry: complementary accounts of causality in the visuospatial judgment network. PLoS One, 4(12), e8307. (IF = 4.411)

de Graaf, T. A., Roebroeck, A., Goebel, R., & Sack, A. T. (2010). Brain network dynamics underlying visuospatial judgment: an FMRI connectivity study. J Cogn Neurosci, 22(9), 2012-2026. (IF = 5.357)

de Graaf, T. A., & Sack, A. T. (2011). Null results in TMS: from absence of evidence to evidence of absence. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 35(3), 871-877. (IF = 9.051)



Thomson AC, Schuhmann T, de Graaf TA, Sack AT, Rutten BPF, Kenis G (2021). The effects of serum removal on gene expression and morphological plasticity markers in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol. online ahead of print

Meng A, Kaiser M, de Graaf TA, Ducker F, Sack AT, de Weerd P, van de Ven V (2021). Transcranial alternating current stimulation at theta frequency to left parietal cortex impairs associative, but not perceptual, memory encoding. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 182:107444.

Akturk T, de Graaf TA, Abra Y, Sahoglu-Goktas S, Ozkan D, Kula A, Guntekin B (2021). Event- related EEG oscillatory responses elicited by dynamic facial expression. Biomedical Engineering Online, 20(1):41

Thomson AC, Kenis G, Tielens S, de Graaf TA, Schuhmann T, Rutten BPF, Sack AT. (2020). Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Induced Plasticity Mechanisms: TMS-Related Gene Expression and Morphology Changes in a Human Neuron-Like Cell Model. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 13

Peters JC, Reithler J, de Graaf TA, Schuhmann T, Goebel R, Sack AT. (2020). Concurrent human TMS-EEG-fMRI enables monitoring of oscillatory brain state-dependent gating of cortico-subcortical network activity. Nature Commun Biol. 3(1):40.

Ten Oever S, Meierdierks T, Duecker F, de Graaf TA, Sack AT. (2020). Phase-Coded Oscillatory Ordering Promotes the Separation of Closely Matched Representations to Optimize Perceptual Discrimination. iScience. 23(7):101282.

Schuhmann T, Kemmerer SK, Duecker F, de Graaf TA, Ten Oever S, De Weerd P, Sack AT. (2019). Left parietal tACS at alpha frequency induces a shift of visuospatial attention. PLoS One. 14(11):e0217729.

Thomson AC, de Graaf TA, Kenis G, Rutten BPF, Schuhmann T, Sack AT (2019). No additive meta plasticity effects of accelerated iTBS with short inter-session intervals. Brain Stimul. 12(5):1301-1303.

Emmerling F, Duecker F, de Graaf TA, Schuhmann T, Adam JJ, Sack AT. (2017). Foresight beats hindsight: The neural correlates underlying motor preparation in the
pro-/anti-cue paradigm. Brain Behav. 7(5). (IF = 2.219)

Engelen, T., de Graaf, T. A., Sack, A. T., & de Gelder, B. (2015). A causal role for inferior parietal lobule in emotion body perception. Cortex, 73, 195–202.

Duecker, F., de Graaf, T.A., Sack, A.T. (2014). Thinking caps for everyone? The role of neuro- enhancement by non-invasive brain stimulation in neuroscience and beyond. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 8, 71.

Duecker, F., Frost, M., de Graaf, T.A., Graewe, B., Jacobs, C., Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2014). The cortex-based alignment approach to TMS coil positioning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 26(10), 2321–2329

Peters, J., Reithler, J., Schuhmann, T., de Graaf, TA., Uludag, K., Goebel, R., Sack, AT. (2013). On the feasibility of concurrent human TMS-EEG-fMRI measurements. Journal of Neurophysiology.

Duecker, F., de Graaf, T.A., Jacobs, C., Sack, A.T. (2013). Time- and task-dependent non-neural effects of real and sham TMS. PLoS ONE. 8(9): e73813

Jacobs, C., de Graaf, TA, Goebel, R., Sack, A.T. (2012). The temporal dynamics of early visual cortex involvement in behavioral priming. PLoS ONE. 7:11. E48808 (IF: 4.411)

Machado, S., Araujo, F., Paes, F., Velasques, B., Cunha, M., Budde, H., …, de Graaf, TA et al. (2011). EEG-based brain-computer interfaces: an overview of basic concepts and clinical applications in neurorehabilitation. Rev Neurosci, 21(6), 451-468.


book chapters

de Graaf TA, Thomson AC, Sack AT. (2021). The various forms of non-invasive brain stimulation and their clinical relevance. In: CNS medical devices (eds. Schreiber, R) Springer

de Graaf TA, Thomson AC, Sack AT. (2021). Is non-invasive brain stimulation the low-hanging fruit? In: CNS medical devices (eds. Schreiber, R) Springer

Sack, A.T., de Graaf, T.A., Schuhmann, T. (2020 – in press). Brain stimulation with multimodal acquisitions. In: EEG-fMRI 2nd edition, (eds. Mulert & Lemieux) Springer

de Graaf TA, Sack AT. (2015). On the various neural correlates of consciousness. In: The Constitution of Phenomenal Consciousness. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company; pp. 177–204


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